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Chronology on Artaxerxes 20th year

Angel Gabriel told Daniel "Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression." (Daniel 9:24) The outset: "from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem." [9:25]

There are 3 decrees recorded in the Bible for the reconstruction of the temple in Jerusalem, they can be found in Ezra 1:1-4; 6:1-12; 7:1-26. But there is only one known decree that specifically calls for the reconstruction of Jerusalem itself, it was recorded in Nehemiah 2:1-8. According to Nehemiah, this occurred in the month of Nisan, in the 20th year of Artaxerxes (Nehemiah 2:1). What year is Artaxerxes 20th year?

According to The Encyclopedia Americana and Great Soviet Encyclopedia, the reign of Artaxerxes came to end on 424 BCE. His successor is Darius Codomanus. One of the ancient document, a Babylonian tablet (The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania series A: Cuneiform Text, Vol. VIII, Part I, by Albert T. Clay, 1908, pp. 34, 83, and plate 57, Tablet No.127 designated CBM 12803) indicates that the accession year of this Darius is "51st year" which means, the reign of Artaxerxes has a total of 50 years, and that the 51st year is when Darius assumed the throne.

So to find the 20th year of Artaxerxes all we need is to simply add 50 to 424 then subtract 20 and we'll find 454 BCE as the 20th year of Artaxerxes. Consequently, from here, if we reckon 490 years, the first year of our reckoning will point to 453 BCE and the completion to 37 CE. (490-453=37)






Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. --James 1:17